Course name: Appalachian History
Department, course #, level: History
Semester(s) and year(s) taught (without significant variation):
Institution: Berea College
Instructor(s): Gordon McKinney
Berea College
Appalachian Center/CPO 2336
Berea Ky 40404

Appalachian History

Dr. McKinney

The class will explore the history of Southern Appalachia and examine how past developments have had an impact on the present. All members of the class will be expected to participate in all class activities and to draw upon their own experiences as well as class materials for class discussions. The following guidelines will be applied to the work of class members:

1. All work presented by students for evaluation must be their own work. Anyone who presents someone else's work as their own will fail the course.

2. Each student must do a research project for the class. The research must include original materials as newspapers letters, interviews, photographs, video and audio tapes, and government documents. Typical presentations of the research would include written papers, video tapes, and in-class talks. The video tapes and talks should be accompanied by a 2-3 page descriptive paper and bibliography that outlines and documents the presentation. A student who prepares a paper must submit one of 10-15 pages. Each student must submit a bibliography of materials consulted that includes at least 10 items--including secondary readings.

3. The texts for the class will be:

Ronald D Eller, Miners, Millhands, and Mountaineers: Industrializatioon of the Appalachian South, 1880-1930

Mary Beth Pudup, Dwight B. Billings, and Altina Waller, Appalachia in the Making: The Mountain South in the Nineteenth Century

David E. Whisnant, Modernizing the Mountaineer: People, Power, and Planning in Appalachia

4. Other readings will be available in the Appalachian Center, on reserve at the Library, and in the periodical reading areas of the library. Students will be expected to discuss all assigned textbook readings.

5. The grade will be determined as follows:

Class participation...10%
Short Paper...............10%

6. Class attendance is required unless a student has a family or personal crisis. Students will also be expected to take part in all extra activities that are related to the class.

7. The following abbreviations will be used in the following list of assigned readings:

AH??Appalachian Heritage
AgH??Agricultural History
AJ??Appalachian Journal
AP??American Presbyterians
AQ??American Quarterly
CSSH??Comparative Studies in Social History
CWH??Civil War History
EEH??Explorations in Economic History
EHR??Environmental History Review
ETHSP?East Tennessee Historical Society's Publications
FCHQ??Filson Club History Quarterly
GHQ??Georgia Historical Quarterly
JAH??Journal of American History
JAS??Journal of Appalachian Studies
JASA??Journal of Appalachian Studies Association
JBS??Journal of Black Studies
JEH??Journal of Economic History
JSH??Journal of Southern History
LaH??Labor History
LSJ??Labor Studies Journal
NCHR??North Carolina Historical Review
RAC??Religion and American Culture
RKHS??Register of the Kentucky Historical Society
SA??Slavery and Abolition
SC??Southern Cultures
SH??Southern Historian
SSH?Social Science History
TAC?Technology and Culture
THQ?Tennessee Historical Quarterly
VMHB?Virginia Magazine of History and Biography
WMQ?William and Mary Quarterly
WVH?West Virginia History

Sept. 2--The Concept of Appalachia, Billings, pp. 1-24, Eller, xv-38

Davis, "Before Albion's Seed: Other Influences on Appalachian Culture," JASA (1995), 57-66

Harkins, "The Significance of 'Hillbilly' in Early Country Music, 1924-1945," JAS (1996), 311-322

McKinney, "The First False Frontier: Eastern Kentucky and the Movies," RKHS (1998), 119-136

Newcomb, Appalachia on Television: Region as Symbol in American Popular Culture," AJ (1979-80), 155-164

Noe, "Appalachia's Civil War Genesis: Southwest Virginia as Depicted by Northern and European Writers, 1825-1865," WVH (1991), 91-108

Shapiro, "Appalachia and the Idea of America: The Problem of the Persisting Frontier," in J. W. Williamson (ed.) An Appalachian Symposium (1977), 43-55

Thompson, "The Image of Appalachian Kentucky in American Popular Magazines, RKHS (1993), 176-202


Sept. 7--The Cherokees, Billings, 25-49

Boyd, "Prehistoric and Historic Human Adaptation in Appalachia: An Archaeological Perspective," JASA (1989), 15-27

Cole, "Montgomerie's Cherokee Campaign, 1760: Two Contemporary Views," NCHR (1997), 19-36

Dunaway, "The Southern Fur Trade and the Incorporation of Southern Appalachia into the World Economy, 1690-1763," Review: Fernand Braudel Center (1994), 215-244

Hatley, "Cherokee Women Farmers Hold Their Ground," in Robert D. Mitchell (ed.), Appalachian Frontiers: Settlement, Society, and Development in the Preindustrial Era (1991), 37-51

Henderson, "Dispelling the Myth: Seventeenth- and Eighteenth-Century Indian Life in Kentucky," RKHS (1992), 1-25

McLoughlin and Conser, "'The First Man Was Red'--Cherokee Responses to the Debate over Indian Origins, 1760-1860," AQ (1989), 243-264


Sept. 9--Cherokees in the 19th Century

Barnard and Schwartzman, "Tecumseh and the Creek Indian War of 1813-1814 in North Georgia," GHQ (1998), 489-506

Finger, "The Abortive Second Cherokee Removal, 1841-1844," JSH (1981), 207-226

McLoughlin and Conser, "The Cherokees in Transition: A Stistical Analysis of the Federal Cherokee Census of 1835," JAH (1977), 678-703

Perdue, "The Conflict Within: The Cherokee Power Structure and Removal," GHQ (1989), 467-491

Perdue, "Traditionalism in the Cherokee Nation: Resistance to the Constitution of 1827," GHQ (1982), 159-170

Satz, "Cherokee Traditionalism, Protestant Evangelism, and the Trail of Tears," THQ (1985), 380-401

Sept.14--Pioneer Settlement, Billings, 50-102, 132-162

Anderson-Green,"The New River Frontier Settlement on the Virginia-North Carolina Border 1760-1820," VMHB (1978), 413-431

Hofstra and Mitchell, "Town and Country in Backcountry Virginia: Winchester and the Shenandoah Valley, 1730-1800," JSH (1993), 619-646

Hofstra, "The Virginia Backcountry in the Eighteenth Century: The Question of Origins and the Issue of Outcomes," VMHB (1993), 485-508

Lewis, "Women Artisans in Backcountry North Carolina, 1753-1790," NCHR (1991), 214-236

Rice, "Old Appalachia's Path to Interdependency: Economic Development and the Creation of Community in Western Maryland, 1730-1850," AJ (1995), 348-375

Sioli, "Huguenot Traditions in the Mountains of Kentucky: Daniel Trabue's Memories," JAH (1998), 1313-1333

Thorp, "Doing Business in the Backcountry: Retail Trade in Colonial Rowan County, North Carolina," WMQ (1991), 387-408


Sept. 16--Yeoman Agriculture

Crawford, "Mountain Farmers and the Market Economy: Ashe County during the 1850s," NCHR (1994), 430-450

Mann, "Mountains, Land, and Kin Networks: Burkes Garden, Virginia, in the 1840s and 1850s," JSH (1992), 411-434

Otto and Anderson, "Slash-and Burn Cultivation in the Highlands South: A Problem in Comparative Agricultural History," CSSH (1982), 131-147

Ross, "Hill-Country Doctor: The Early Life and Career of Samuel F. Miller in Kentucky, 1816-1849," FCHQ (1997), 430-462

Weiman, "Farmers and the Market in Antebellum America: A View from the Georgia Upcountry," JEH (1987), 627-647

Weingartner, et al, "Agriculture in Preindustrial Appalachia: Subsistence Farming in Beech Creek, 1850-1880," JASA (1989), 70-80


Sept. 21--Class System, Billings 103-131

Bailey, "Class and Tennessee's Confederate Generation," JSH (1985), 31-60

Billings and Blee, "Appalachian Inequality in the Nineteenth Century: The Case of Beech Creek, Kentucky," JASA (1992), 113-123

Delfino, "Antebellum East Tennessee Elites and Industrialization: The Examples of the Iron Industry and Internal Improvements," ETHSP (1984-85), 102-119

Groce, "The Social Origins of East Tennessee's Confederate Leadership," in Kenneth W. Noe and Shannon Wilson (eds.), The Civil War in Appalachia: Collected Essays (1997), 30-54

McKenzie, "Wealth and Income: The Preindustrial Structure of East Tennessee in 1860," AJ (1994), 260-278

Pudup, "Social Class and Economic Development in Southeastern Kentucky, 1820-1880," in Robert D. Mitchell (ed.), Appalachian Frontiers: Settlement, Society, and Development in the Preindustrial Era (1991), 235-260


Sept. 23--Slavery

Dunaway, "Diaspora, Death, and Sexual Exploitation: Slave Families at Risk in the Mountain South," AJ (1999), 128-149

Inscoe, "Mountain Masters: Slaveholding in Western North Carolina," NCHR (1984), 143-173

Lewis, "The Darkest Abode of Man: Black Miners in the First Southern Coal Field, 1780-1865," VMHB (1979), 189-202

Lewis, "The Use and Extent of Slave Labor in the Virginia Iron Industry: The Ante-Bellum Era," WVH (1977), 141-156

Murphy, "Slavery and Freedom in Appalachia: Kentucky as a Demographic Case Study," RKHS (1982), 151-169

Stuckert, "Free Black Populations of the Southern Appalachian Mountains: 1860," JBS (1993), 358-370


Sept. 28--Politics, Billings 163-184, 210-232

Crawford, "Political Society in a Southern Mountain Community: Ashe County, North Carolina, 1850-1861," JSH (1989), 373-390

Curry "Crisis Politics in West Virginia, 1861-1870," in Richard O. Curry (ed.), Radicalism, Racism, and Party Alignment: The Border States during Reconstruction (1969), 80-104

Hall, "The Politics of Appalachian Virginia, 1790-1830," in Robert D. Mitchell (ed.), Appalachian Frontiers: Settlement, Society, and Development in the Preindustrial Era (1991), 166-186

Hettie, "An Ambiguous Democrat: Joseph E. Brown and Georgia's Road to Secession," GHQ (1997), 577-592

Inscoe, "Thomas Clingman, Mountain Whiggery, and the Southern Cause," CWH (1987), 42-62

Jeffrey, "A Whole Torrent of Mean and Malevolent Abuse: Party Politics and the Clingman-Mitchell Controversy," NCHR (1993), 241-265

Sept. 30--Civil War

Fisher, "The Leniency Shown Them Has Been Unavailing: The Confederate Occupation of East Tennessee," CWH (1994), 275-291

Humphrey, "The Civil War and Church Schisms in Southern Appalachia," AH (1981), 38-51

Inscoe, "Mountain Masters as Confederate Opportunists: The Profitability of Slavery in Western North Carolina, 1861-65," SA (1995), 84-100

McKenzie, "'Oh! Ours Is a Deplorable Condition': The Economic Impact of the Civil War in Upper East Tennessee," in Kenneth W. Noe and Shannon H. Wilson (eds.), The Civil War in Appalachia: Collected Essays (1997), 199-226

McGee, "Home and Friends: Kniship, Community, and Elite Women in Caldwell County, North Carolina, during the Civil War," NCHR (1997), 363-388

McKinney, "Women's Role in Civil War Western North Carolina," NCHR (1992), 37-56

Sarris, "Anatomy of an Atrocity: The Madden Branch Massacre and Guerrilla Warfare in North Georgia, 1861-1865," GHQ (1993), 679-710

Oct. 5--Examination


Oct. 7--Industrialization--Timber and Railroads, Eller 39-198, Billings 272-346

Arcury, "Household Composition and Early Industrial Transformation: Eastern Kentucky 1880-1910," JASA (1990), 47-68

Banks, "The Emergence of a Capitalist Labor Market in Eastern Kentucky," AJ (1980), 188-199

Kantor and Kousser, "Common Sense or Commonwealth? The Fence Law and Institutional Change in the Postbellum South," JSH (1993), 201-242

Lambert, "Logging the Great Smokies, 1880-1930," THQ (1961), 350-363

McKinney, "The Blair Committee Investigation of 1883: Industrialization in the Southern Mountains," AJ (1999), 150-167

Pudup, "The Limits of Subsistence: Agriculture and Industry in Central Appalachia," AgH (1990), 61-89

Salstrom, "Appalachia's Informal Economy and the Transition to Capitalism," JAS (1996), 213-233


Oct. 12--Coal

Eller, "The Coal Barons of the Appalachian South, 1880-1930," AJ (1976), 195-207

Fishback, "Did Coal Miners 'Owe Their Souls to the Company Store'? Theory and Evidence from the Early 1900s," JEH (1986), 1011-1029

Hennen, "Benign Betrayal: Capitalist Intervention in Pocahontas County, West Virginia, 1890-1910," WVH (1991), 46-62

Letwin, "Interracial Unionism, Gender, and Social Equality in the Alabama Coalfields, 1878-1908," JSH (1995), 519-554

Lewis, "From Peasant to Proletarian: The Migration of Southern Blacks to the Central Appalachian Coalfields," JSH (1989), 77-102

Weise, "Property, Gender, and the Sale of Mineral Rights in Pre-industrial Eastern Kentucky," JASA (1995), 79-90

Oct. 14--Politics of Identity and Exploitation

Fitzgerald, "Radical Republicanism and the White Yeomanry during Alabama Reconstruction, 1865-1868," JSH (1988), 565-596

Ireland, "The Green-Hargis Affair: Judicial Politics in Nineteenth-Century Kentucky," FCHQ (1995), 366-389

Jeffrey, "An Unclean Vessel: Thomas Lanier Clingman and the Railroad Ring," NCHR (1997), 389-431

McKinney, "The Political Uses of Appalachian Identity After the Civil War," AJ (1980), 200-209

McKinney, "Southern Mountain Republicans and the Negro, 1865-1900," JSH (1975), 493-516

Starnes, "The Stirring Strains of Dixie: The Civil War and Southern Identity in Haywood County, North Carolina," NCHR (1997), 237-259

Tull, "The Shift to Republicanism: William L. Wilson and the Election of 1894," WVH (1975), 17-33


Oct. 21--Discovery of Appalachia, Billings 347-376,

Billings and Blee, "Where the Sun Sets Crimson and the Moon Rose Red: Writing Appalachia and the Kentucky Mountain Feuds," SC (1996), 329-352

Frost, "Our Contemporary Ancestors in the Southern Mountains," AH (1976), 80-90

Shapiro, "Appalachia and the Idea of America: The Problem of the Persisting Frontier," in J. W. Williamson (ed.), An Appalachian Symposium (1977), 43-55

Williams, "The Southern Mountaineer in Fact and Fiction: Charles Egbert Craddock and the Southern Mountaineer in Fiction," AJ (1976), 134-162

Wilson, "The Felicitous Convergence of Mythmaking and Capital Accumulation: John Fox Jr. and the Formation of An Almost-White Underclass," JAS (1995), 5-44

Wilson, "Lincoln's Sons and Daughters: Berea College, Lincoln Memorial University, and the Myth of Unionist Appalachia, 1866-1910," in Kenneth W. Noe and Shannon H. Wilson (eds.), The Civil War in Appalachia: Collected Essays (1997), 242-264


Oct. 26--Progressive Movement and Reform Efforts, Eller 199-242

Aldrich, "Preventing the Needless Peril of the Coal Mine: The Bureau of Mines and the Campaign against Coal Mine Explosions, 1910-1940," TAC (1995), 483-518

Barney, "Bringing Modern Medicine to the Mountains: Scientific Medicine and the Transformation of Health Care in Southern West Virginia, 1880-1910," WVH (1996), 110-126

Harper, "Wilson Progressives vs. Du Pont: Controversy in Building the Nitro Plant," WVH (1989), 93-107

Jones, "Class Consciousness and Worker Solidarity in Urban Tennessee: The Chattanooga Carmen's Strikes of 1899-1917," THQ (1993), 98-112

Jones, "Municipal Vice: The Management of Prostitution in Tennessee's Urban Experience: The Examples of Chattanooga and Knoxville, 1838-1917," THQ (1991), 110-122

Potts, "Unfilled Expectations: The Erosion of Black Political Power in Chattanooga, 1865-1911," THQ (1990), 112 128

Schmitzer, "Reaching Out to the Mountains: The Pack Horse Library of Eastern Kentucky," RKHS (1997), 57-77


Oct. 28--Women's Movements, Fisher, 263-281, Billings 185-209

Blackwell, "Eleanor Marsh Frost and the Gender Dimensions of Appalachian Reform Efforts," RKHS (1996), 225-246

Effland, "A Profile of Political Activists: Women of the West Virginia Woman Suffrage Movement," WVH (1990), 103-114

Hall, "Disorderly Women: Gender and Labor Militancy in the Appalachian South," JAH (1986), 354-382

Hatfield, "Mountain Justice: The Making of a Feminist Icon and Cultural Scapegoat," AJ (Fall 1995), 26-47

O'Brien, "Persecution and Acceptance: The Strange History of Discrimination against Married Women Teachers in West Virginia," WVH (1997), 56-75

Waugh and Stitzel, "Anything but Cordial: Coeducation and West Virginia University's Early Women," WVH (1990), 69-80

Whites, "Rebecca Latimer Felton and the Wife's Farm: The Class and Racial Politics of Gender Reform," GHQ (1992), 354-372

Nov. 2--Examination


Nov. 4--Reaction and Repression

Beers, "The Wythe County Lynching of Raymond Bird: Progressivism vs. Mob Violence in the 1920s," AJ (1994), 34-59

Burchett, "Promise and Prejudice: Wise County, Virginia, and the Great Migration, 1910-1920," JNH (1997), 312-327

Burran, "Labor Conflict in Urban Appalachia: The Knoxville Streetcar Strike of 1919," THQ (1979), 62-78

Fishbeck, "Segregation in Job Hierarchies: West Virginia Coal Mining, 1906-1932," JEH (1984), 755-774

Frazier, "Outsiders in the Land of Sky: City Planning and the Transformation of Asheville, North Carolina, 1921-1929," JAS (1998), 299-316

Hughes, "The Apocalyptic Origins of Churches of Christ and the Triumph of Modernism," RAC (1992), 181-214

Rice, "The "Separate but Equal' Schools of Monogalia County's Coal Mining Communities," JAS (1996), 323-335


Nov. 9--Great Depression

Barney, "Health Services in a Stranded Coal Community: Scotts Run, 1920-1947," WVH (1994), 43-60

Cook, "The Great Depression, Subsistence and Views of Poverty in Wyoming County, West Virginia," JAS (1998), 271-283

Fry, "Rayon, Riot, and Repression: The Covington Sit-Down Strike of 1937," VMHB (1976), 3-18

Glen, "The Making of a Southern Radical: Myles Horton and the Establishment of the Highlander Folk School," SH (1986), 5-22

Haynes, "Quaker Observations on a Coal-Mining Community in the Depths of the Depression: Letcher County, Kentucky, in the Summer of 1933," FCHQ (1990), 479-493

Olson, "The Depths of the Great Depression: Economic Collapse in West Virginia, 1932-1933," WVH (1977), 214-225

Walker, "African Americans and TVA Reservoir Property Removal: Race in a New Deal Program," AgH (1998), 417-428


Nov. 10--New Deal, Whisnant 1-69

Dickinson and Reagan, "Business, Labor, and the Blue Eagle: The Harriman Hosiery Mills Strike, 1933-1934," THQ (1996), 240-255

McDonald and Muldowny, "Reburying the Dead: Disinternment and Reinternment at TVA's Norris Dam," ETHSP (1975), 118-138

Mitchell, "Culture, History, and Development in the Qualla Boundary: Eastern Cherokees and the Blue Ridge Parkway, 1935-40," AJ (1997), 144-191

Pierce, "The Barbarism of the Huns: Family and Community Removal in the Establishment of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park," THQ (1998), 62-79

Price, "The New Deal in Tennessee: The Highlander Folk School and Worker Response in Grundy County," THQ (1984), 99-120

Simmons, "Conservation, Cooperation and Controversy: The Establishment of Shenandoah National Park, 1924-1936," VMHB (1981), 387-404

Warren-Findley, "Musicians and Mountaineers: The Resettlement Administration's Music Program in Appalachia, 1935-37," AJ (1979-80), 105-123


Nov. 16--World War II, Whisnant 70-152

Adamson, "The SED in Oak Ridge, 1943-1946: Using a Secret Newsletter by a Secret Army Detachment to Learn More about a Secret City in Tennessee," THQ (1997), 196-211

Bailey, "I Never Thought of My Life as History: A Story of Hillbilly Exodus and Price of Assimilation," JAS (1997), 231-242

Banker, "Warren Wilson College: From Mountain Mission to Multicultural Community," AP (1995), 111-123

Bernard, "The Rise and Decline of a Working Class Community: Long Island, Tennessee, 1925-1986," ETHSP (1986-1987), 112-140

Berry, "The Great White Migration, Alcohol, and the Transplatation of Southern Protestant Churches," RKHS (1996), 265-296

Black, "The Roving Picket Movement and the Appalachian Committee for Full Employment, 1959-1965: A Narrative," JASA (1990), 110-127


Nov. 18--Modernization

Best, "Project Torchlight: Thirty Years Later," AH (1997), 7-16

Black, "The Roving Picket Movement and the Appalachian Committee for Full Employment, 1959-1965: A Narrative," JASA (1990), 110-127

Derickson, "From Company Doctors to Union Hospitals: The First Democratic Health-Care Experiments of the United Mine Workers of America," LaH (1992), 343-356

Derickson, "Participative Regulation of Hazardous Working Conditions: Safety Committees of the United Mine Workers of America, 1941-1969," LSJ (1993), 25-38

Mulcahy, "A New Deal for Coal Miners: The UMWA Welfare and Retirement Fund and the Reorganization of Health Care in Appalachia," JAS (1996), 29-52

Patton, "Textile Organizing in a Sunbelt Community: Northwest Georgia's Carpet Industry in the Early 1960s," LH (1998), 291-310

Sarvis, "The Mount Rogers National Recreation Area and the Rise of Public Involvement in Forest Service Planning," EHR (1994), 41-66

Nov. 23--Student Reports

Nov. 30--Student reports

Dec. 2--Civil Rights Movement

Adamson, "Few Black Voices Heard: The Black Community and the Desegregation Crisis in Clinton, Tennessee, 1956," THQ (1994), 30-41

Blee and Billings, "Race Differences in the Origins and Consequences of Chronic Poverty in Rural Appalachia," SSH (1996), 345-374

Carter, "Segregation and Integration in the Appalachian Coalfields: McDowell County Responds to the Brown Decision," WVH (1995), 239-253

Fleming, "White Lunch Counters and Black Consciousness: The Story of the Knoxville Sit-Ins," THQ (1990), 40-52

Marshall, "Handling Dynamite: Young People, Race, and Montreat," AP (1996), 141-154

McClelland, "A Structural Analysis of Desegregation: Clinton High School, 1954-1958," THQ (1998), 294-309

Dec. 7--Appalachian Rights Movement

Kiffmeyer, "From Self-Help to Sedition: The Appalachian Volunteers in Eastern Kentucky, 1964-1970," JSH (1998), 65-94

Kirby, "Our Own Music," in Helen Matthews Lewis, et al (eds.), Colonialism in Modern America: The Appalachian Case (1978), 229-250

Moyers, "The Adventures of a Radical Hillbilly: An Interview with Myles Horton," AJ (1982), 248-285

Obermiller and Wagner, "Cincinnati's Second Minority: The Emergence of Appalachian Advicacy, 1953-1973," AJ (1997), 274-295

Whisnant," Controversy in God's Grand Division: The Council of the Southern Mountains," AJ (1974), 7-45

Whisnant, "Finding the Way Between the Old and the New: The Mountain Dance and Folk Festival and Bascom Lamar Lunsford's Work as a Citizen," AJ (1979-80), 135-154

[J.W. Williamson], "Anger and Hope in Nearly Equal Measure: An Interview with Steve Fisher," AJ (1999), 170-187


Dec. 9--Modern Appalachia, Whisnant 153-285

Black and Rhorer, "Out in the Mountains: Exploring Lesbian and Gay Lives," JASA (1995), 18-28

Drobney, "A Generation in Revolt: Student Dissent and Political Repression at West Virginia University," WVH (1995), 105-122

Goode, "The Kentucky Appalachian Task Force: Re-Democratization of Appalachia," AH (1996), 36-48

Isserman, "Appalachia Then and Now: An Update of 'The Realities of Deprivation' Report to the President in 1964," JAS (1997), 43-69

Maggard, "Gender and Schooling in Appalachia: Lessons for an Era of Economic Restructuring," JASA (1995), 140-151

Mulcahy, "Partitioning the Miner's Welfare State: The Destruction of the Medical Program of the UMWA Welfare and Retirement Fund," MA (1995), 175-204

Willis, "Recovering from My Own Little War: Women and Domestic Violence in Rural Appalachia," JAS (1998), 255-270

Top of page